Cultural studiesEuropean ethnologysociologyeconomicssocial workeducationdesignpsychologycomputer sciencehuman factors and ergonomicsethnomusicologyfolkloristicsreligious studiesgeographyhistorylinguisticscommunication studiesperformance studiesadvertisingnursing, urban planningusabilitypolitical science social movement and criminology are other fields which have made use of ethnography.
Folk notions of botany and zoology are presented as ethnobotany and ethnozoology alongside references from the formal sciences. This factor has provided a basis to criticize ethnography. The exact time frame can vary from several weeks to a year or more. It is conducted in the settings in which real people actually live, rather than in laboratories where the researcher controls the elements of the behaviors to be observed or measured.
Effectively, the idea of the image is a primary tool for ethnographers to collect data. An ethnography is a specific kind of written observational science which provides an account of a particular culture, society, or community.
In this way, cultural boundaries of communication could be explored, as opposed to using linguistic boundaries or notions about the residence. Traditionally, the ethnographer focuses attention on a community, selecting knowledgeable informants who know the activities of the community well.
It requires a long-term commitment i. Beginning in the s and early s, anthropologists began writing "bio-confessional" ethnographies that intentionally exposed the nature of ethnographic research.
That is, the ethnographer cannot escape the personal viewpoint in creating an ethnographic account, thus making any claims of objective neutrality highly problematic, if not altogether impossible.
The physical entity that is the novel contains a specific image in the perspective of the interpreting individual and can only be expressed by the individual in the terms of "I can tell you what an image is by telling you what it feels like.
Neophyte Ethnographers are strongly encouraged to develop extensive familiarity with their subject prior to entering the field; otherwise, they may find themselves in difficult situations. The typical ethnography is a document written about a particular people, almost always based at least in part on emic views of where the culture begins and ends.
In his fieldwork, Geertz used elements of a phenomenological approach, tracing not just the doings of people, but the cultural elements themselves. Within cultural anthropology, there are several subgenres of ethnography. In the past, kinship charts were commonly used to "discover logical patterns and social structure in non-Western societies".
For example, if within a group of people, winking was a communicative gesture, he sought to first determine what kinds of things a wink might mean it might mean several things.
Ethnographic research can range from a realist perspective, in which behavior is observed, to a constructivist perspective where understanding is socially constructed by the researcher and subjects.
It is conducted through the use of two or more data collection techniques - which may be qualitative or quantitative in nature - in order to get a conclusion.
Iterations of ethnographic representations in the classic, modernist camp include Joseph W. Languages spoken, dialects, and the history of language change are another group of standard topics. The image presents the perspective, experiences, and influences of an individual as a single entity and in consequence, the individual will always contain this image in the group under study.
Material culture, technology, and means of subsistence are usually treated next, as they are typically bound up in physical geography and include descriptions of infrastructure. One example of an image is how an individual views a novel after completing it.
Later " reflexive " ethnographies refined the technique to translate cultural differences by representing their effects on the ethnographer.
It is conducted by researchers who are in the day-to-day, face-to-face contact with the people they are studying and who are thus both participants in and observers of the lives under study. Classic examples are Carol B.
Then, he sought to determine in what contexts winks were used, and whether, as one moved about a region, winks remained meaningful in the same way. This critical turn in sociocultural anthropology during the mids can be traced to the influence of the now classic and often contested text, Writing Culture: Using language or community boundaries to bound the ethnography is common.
Cultural and social anthropologists today place a high value on doing ethnographic research. Differences across disciplines[ edit ] The ethnographic method is used across a range of different disciplines, primarily by anthropologists but also occasionally by sociologists.
Participation, rather than just observation, is one of the keys to this process. It is conducted so as to yield the fullest possible portrait of the group under study.
These can include participant observation, field notes, interviews, and surveys. The fieldwork usually involves spending a year or more in another society, living with the local people and learning about their ways of life.
Secondary research and document analysis are also used to provide insight into the research topic. Research can range from an objectivist account of fixed, observable behaviors to an interpretive narrative describing "the interplay of individual agency and social structure.
It is conducted in such a way to use an accumulation of descriptive detail to build toward general patterns or explanatory theories rather than structured to test hypotheses derived from existing theories or models.
Interviews are often taped and later transcribed, allowing the interview to proceed unimpaired of note-taking, but with all information available later for full analysis.
In order to make the data collection and interpretation transparent, researchers creating ethnographies often attempt to be "reflexive". Cultural and social anthropology[ edit ] Cultural anthropology and social anthropology were developed around ethnographic research and their canonical texts, which are mostly ethnographies: In certain instances, active collaboration between the researcher s and subject s has helped blend the practice of collaboration in ethnographic fieldwork with the process of creating the ethnographic product resulting from the research.Within cultural anthropology, there are several subgenres of ethnography.
Beginning in the s and early s, anthropologists began writing "bio-confessional" ethnographies that intentionally exposed the nature of ethnographic research. Cultural Anthropology and Ethnographic Fieldwork Cultural Anthropology The nature of the culture: farming, hunting, gathering, fishing, cattle raising, industrialization etc.
The uses and measures of wealth. Jamaica has a history of farming, hunting, gathering and fishing going back to colonial days. + Popular Essays. Airport Security. Ethnography Essays: OverEthnography Essays, Ethnography Term Papers, Ethnography Research Paper, Book Reports.
ESSAYS, term and research papers available for UNLIMITED access Ethnographic research comes from the discipline of social and cultural anthropology where an ethnographer is required to spend a significant amount of.
Summary. Ethnography: a research method for deciphering a behavior that is not in words or numbers. Ethnographic Research is a discipline based on the concept of culture that combines tactics of observation and interview to record the dynamic behavior.
How to Write an Ethnography What is Ethnography? Ethnographic writing originated in the field of anthropology to give detailed accounts of the lives and practices of various cultures. Researchers who aspire to create ethnographies of a particular culture understand cultural practices through experience as well as observation.
[tags: Cultural Anthropology] Powerful Essays words | ( pages) | Preview. Visual Ethnographic Research Study - Throughout the young lives of children, there are many methods that can be used to interpret and understand their respective childhoods. Science Of Desire Article Summary and Critique Cultural Anthropology and.Download