In the later and more flowing New Roman Cursive, ligatures of all kinds were extremely common; figures 2 and 3 from the middle of 4th century are examples of how the et-ligature could look in this script. On the formal end of the spectrum, you have the scholarly writing you do for classroom assignments, theses and dissertations, and publications.
Style guides typically advise consulting an official source for the standard form of the name as one would do if uncertain about other aspects of the spelling of the name ; some tend towards greater prescriptiveness, for or against such an apostrophe. Is it a pool party or a fancy dinner?
Possessives in business names[ edit ] Sign to Green Craigs housing development See also: Contractions are a part of informal writing.
In modern usage, apostrophes are generally omitted when letters are removed from the start of a word, particularly for a compound word. You might find this kind of remark in a footnote or a parenthetical statement. The informal majority view 5—4, based on past writings of the justices as of favoured the additional s, but a strong minority disagrees.
Possessives in geographic names[ edit ] Place names in the United States do not use the possessive apostrophe on federal maps and signs. Apostrophe showing omission[ edit ] An apostrophe is commonly used to indicate omitted characters, normally letters: If you are reproducing a direct quotation that contains a contraction e.
Those things over there belong to my husband. If the word or compound already includes a possessive apostrophe, a double possessive results: Thus, avoid contractions in scholarly writing, except for under the following circumstances: Rules that modify or extend the standard principle have included the following: If the singular possessive is difficult or awkward to pronounce with an added sibilant, do not add an extra s; these exceptions are supported by The Guardian Yahoo!
Some business names may inadvertently spell a different name if the name with an s at the end is also a name, such as Parson. If you are writing about contractions e. We rehearsed because Friday is opening night.
Exceptions are accounted for in the same way: An example may be seen in M. However, if the shortening is unusual, dialectal or archaic, the apostrophe may still be used to mark it e.
The apostrophe here may be seen as marking a contraction where the prefix Mc or Mac would normally appear. A widely accepted practice is to follow whichever spoken form is judged better: Guides typically seek a principle that will yield uniformity, even for foreign words that fit awkwardly with standard English punctuation.
Similarly, the possessives of all phrases whose wording is fixed are formed in the same way: The et-ligature, however, continued to be used and gradually became more stylized and less revealing of its origin figures 4—6.
Until the 18th century, the apostrophe was extensively used to indicate subjective, "normal" plural, and its use for indicating plural "possessive" use was not standard before the middle of the 19th century.
If the plural is not one that is formed by adding s, an s is added for the possessive, after the apostrophe: After the advent of printing in Europe inprinters made extensive use of both the italic and Roman ampersands.
Many respected authorities recommend that practically all singular nouns, including those ending with a sibilant sound, have possessive forms with an extra s after the apostrophe so that the spelling reflects the underlying pronunciation.
As a result, the recitation of the alphabet would end in "X, Y, Z, and per se and". The issue of the use of the apostrophe arises when the coordinate construction includes a noun phrase and a pronoun.
Likewise, when it comes to writing, some ways of expressing yourself are more formal than others, and different contexts come with different expectations about what is appropriate. These principles are universally accepted. If an original apostrophe, or apostrophe with s, occurs at the end, it is left by itself to do double duty: In such examples, the plurals are formed with an s that does not occur at the end:Do not be sad!
Catch a cat if you can ;-) It's interesting! apostrophe ’ ' brackets [ ] Writing the ampersand. In everyday handwriting, In the 20th century, following the development of formal logic, the ampersand became a commonly used logical notation for the binary operator or sentential connective AND.
This usage was adopted in killarney10mile.com: Logographic, and Ideographic. Always use the word ‘and’ spelled out when you are writing a formal piece. You may use the ampersand in bibliographies when referring to the name of a business.
You may use the ampersand in bibliographies when referring to the name of a business. The ampersand (&) is a symbol for killarney10mile.com the percent or degree symbol, you generally shouldn't use the ampersand except in the most informal situations.
Some style guides allow ampersands as part of a formal company. ampersand & asterisk * at sign @ Truss says this usage is no longer considered proper in formal writing. In Czech, an apostrophe is used for writing to indicate spoken or informal language where the writer wants to express the.
Contractions in Formal Writing: What's Allowed, What's Not by Chelsea Lee Asking whether you should use contractions in formal academic writing is sort of like asking whether you should wear a bathing suit to a party—it depends on the type of party.Download